MAKE CHAPTER 288 YOUR AVIATION HOME! E-AB, TYPE CERTIFIED, VINTAGE, WARBIRD, ETC.
MAKE CHAPTER 288 YOUR AVIATION HOME! E-AB, TYPE CERTIFIED, VINTAGE, WARBIRD, ETC.
(Reprinted from the Daytona News Journal)
NASA'S ORION TO MAKE LUNAR GRAVITY-ASSIST FLYBY TO HELP LAUNCH IT HOMEWARD
Readying to return
Florida Today USA TODAY NETWORK – FLORIDA
NASA's Artemis I mission began the last leg of its deep-space journey Thursday when an Orion spacecraft departed lunar orbit, but the trip back to Earth isn't quite yet underway. It first has to swing by the moon again for a gravity assist maneuver early next week.
Thursday afternoon, the uncrewed spacecraft powered up its largest engine for a 105-second burn. The maneuver propelled Orion out of its distant retrograde orbit, or DRO, around the moon and committed it to a path back to Earth, skirting the lunar surface along the way.
“It's been a fantastic mission, but all great things must come to an end,” NASA spokesperson Dan Huot said during NASA's livestream of Thursday's burn.
Next, Orion will fire up its Orbital Maneuvering System engine once more on Monday for the powered return flyby, a burn similar to last week's powered outbound flyby.
The Orbital Maneuvering System engine is a repurposed piece of space shuttle hardware flying for the first time on Orion, having last flown during the STS-112 mission in October 2002. It joins over 30 other engines on Orion's powerhouse, a service module built by the European Space Agency.
Monday's powered flyby will again position Orion close to the surface at less than 80 miles like last week's maneuver that flung Orion into its distant retrograde lunar orbit. This time, however, it will harness the moon's gravity while aimed at Earth for its return trip home.
The return powered flyby will swingOrion past the Apollo 12 and 14 landing sites during daylight this time, but by the time Orion gets there, it will be positioned about 6,000 miles above the lunar surface. That's too far to capture any detailed photographs.
“We are absolutely going to be pointing cameras at that area. But these are essentially GoPro cameras and we're 6,000 miles away,” Zebulon Scoville, NASA flight director, told reporters on Wednesday.
“You can imagine being in Houston and pointing a GoPro in Paris and trying to see a Volkswagen bus there, you're not going to see it,” he said. “It'll be more of a tip of the hat and a historical nod to the past as we fly this spaceship to the future.”
All told, Orion has performed well so far and is expected to keep chugging along for the return leg of the Artemis I mission.
NASA's Chris Edelen, Orion vehicle integration deputy manager, told reporters Wednesday that “things have been very smooth with the spacecraft.”
“If this is a new car you purchase, you're going to be very happy,” he said. “It's drama-free so far and exceeding expectations.”
After coasting back toward Earth for about six days, Orion will ditch the service module before re-entering the atmosphere on Dec. 11. It will then descend under a parachute canopy for a 12:42 p.m. EST splashdown in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California, marking the end of Artemis I.
If all goes well, the splashdown will pave the way for NASA to execute a similar mission in the form of Artemis II. Though the mission profile looks similar to Artemis I, it will include astronauts. Then, Artemis III will aim to put two astronauts on the lunar surface before 2030.
Join NASA as they explore and go forward to the Moon and on to Mars. Plus, discover the latest on Earth, the Solar System and beyond from NASA in your inbox.
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has produced the deepest and sharpest infrared image of the distant universe to date. Known as Webb’s First Deep Field, this image of galaxy cluster SMACS 0723 is overflowing with detail.
Thousands of galaxies – including the faintest objects ever observed in the infrared – have appeared in Webb’s view for the first time. This slice of the vast universe covers a patch of sky approximately the size of a grain of sand held at arm’s length by someone on the ground.
This deep field, taken by Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), is a composite made from images at different wavelengths, totaling 12.5 hours – achieving depths at infrared wavelengths beyond the Hubble Space Telescope’s deepest fields, which took weeks.
The image shows the galaxy cluster SMACS 0723 as it appeared 4.6 billion years ago. The combined mass of this galaxy cluster acts as a gravitational lens, magnifying much more distant galaxies behind it. Webb’s NIRCam has brought those distant galaxies into sharp focus – they have tiny, faint structures that have never been seen before, including star clusters and diffuse features. Researchers will soon begin to learn more about the galaxies’ masses, ages, histories, and compositions, as Webb seeks the earliest galaxies in the universe.
This image is among the telescope’s first-full color images. The full suite will be released Tuesday, July 12, beginning at 10:30 a.m. EDT, during a live NASA TV broadcast. Learn more about how to watch.
United Launch Alliance (ULA)—the Boeing/Lockheed joint-venture that provides space launch services to the U.S. Department of Defense, NASA, and other major players in the space industry—expects the first flight of its Vulcan Centaur rocket to take place by the end of 2022.
The Vulcan Centaur will replace ULA’s Atlas-5 launch vehicle—a twenty-year old Lockheed Martin design and the oldest active American rocket.
Each Atlas-5 comprises two main stages, the first of which is powered by a Russian RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is being phased out on account of the national security implications inherent its being reliant on foreign parts—which became a concern subsequent the U.S.’s and Russia’s disagreement over Ukrainian sovereignty.
Provided preparations proceed apace, the partially reusable Vulcan Centaur’s inaugural mission will see it depart from Space Launch Complex-41 at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station carrying Astrobotic’s Peregrine lunar lander—an autonomous, robotic vehicle capable of delivering payloads of up to 265-kilograms to the lunar surface with a target accuracy of one-hundred meters.
The Vulcan Centaur was to have launched in 2020, but the program has been delayed by the rocky development of Blue Origin’s BE-4 rocket engine (pictured)—which burns methane and is more powerful than the main engines that powered the space shuttle. ULA’s optimism notwithstanding, space industry insiders believe it’s unlikely that Kent, Washington-based Blue Origin will deliver the new engines before 2023.
Gary L. Wentz Jr., ULA’s vice president of government and commercial programs, asserts ULA has in its possession a number of the Russian-made RD-180 sufficient to complete the Atlas-5’s planned missions. Mister Wentz states Atlas 5 flights will wind-down as Vulcan Centaur launches spool-up. At present, Atlas-5 operations are slated to continue into 2024.
Space Force Col. Erin Gulden shares Mr. Wentz’s outlook, stating of the transition from the Atlas 5 to the Vulcan Centaur, “from the Space Force’s perspective, we don’t see any issues or concerns at this point with a gap in capability or ability to launch.”
The Space Force’s first launch on a Vulcan Centaur is planned for late 2023.
This article is reprinted from "Propwash"
To learn more about United Launch Alliance go to: https://www.ulalaunch.com/rockets/vulcan-centaur
The history of the universe and how it evolved is broadly accepted as the Big Bang model, which states that the universe began as an incredibly hot, dense point roughly 13.7 billion years ago. So, how did the universe go from being fractions of an inch (a few millimeters) across to what it is today?
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Many folks have not had the opportunity to ever see the Launch Control Center except for viewing of the firing rooms on TV during the Apollo and Shuttle launches. Here's a short, one minute video on the recent remodel of the LCC lobby.
SpaceX plans to get even more ambitious with its pinpoint rocket landings.
Elon Musk's company routinely recovers and reuses the first stages of its Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets, bringing the boosters down for soft vertical landingsabout 9 minutes after liftoff on ground near the launch pad or on autonomous "drone ships" in the ocean.
These touchdowns are impressively precise. But SpaceX aims to achieve something truly mind-blowing with Starship, the next-generation system the company is developing to take people and payloads to the moon, Mars and other distant destinations.
The core stage of the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for NASA’s Artemis I mission was placed on the mobile launcher in between the twin solid rocket boosters inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. The boosters attach at the engine and intertank sections of the core stage. Serving as the backbone of the rocket, the core stage supports the weight of the payload, upper stage, and crew vehicle, as well as carrying the thrust of its four engines and two five-segment solid rocket boosters. After the core stage arrived on April 27, engineers with Exploration Ground Systems and contractor Jacobs brought the core stage into the VAB for processing work and then lifted it into place with one of the five overhead cranes in the facility.
Once the core stage is stacked alongside the boosters, the launch vehicle stage adapter, which connects the core stage to the interim cryogenic propulsion stage (ICPS), will be stacked atop the core stage and quickly followed by the ICPS.
Artemis I will be an uncrewed test of the Orion spacecraft and SLS rocket as an integrated system ahead of crewed flights to the Moon. Under the Artemis program, NASA aims to land the first woman and first person of color on the Moon in 2024 (now 2026) and establish sustainable lunar exploration by the end of the decade.
See a time lapsed video of the 'stacking' that took place at Kennedy Space Center
With hundreds of thousands logging in all over the globe to watch, the 'much upgraded' Starship SN15 aced a test flight that had destroyed four prototypes before it.
On Wednesday, May 5, Starship serial number 15 (SN15) successfully completed SpaceX’s fifth high-altitude flight test of a Starship prototype from Starbase in Texas.
Similar to previous high-altitude flight tests of Starship, SN15 was powered through ascent by three Raptor engines, each shutting down in sequence prior to the vehicle reaching apogee – approximately 10 km in altitude. SN15 performed a propellant transition to the internal header tanks, which hold landing propellant, before reorienting itself for reentry and a controlled aerodynamic descent.
The Starship prototype descended under active aerodynamic control, accomplished by independent movement of two forward and two aft flaps on the vehicle. All four flaps were actuated by an onboard flight computer to control Starship’s attitude during flight and enabled precise landing at the intended location. SN15’s Raptor engines reignited as the vehicle performed the landing flip maneuver immediately before touching down for a nominal landing on the pad.
While a small fire (probably methane-fed) was evident for several minutes after the landing, it was eventually extinguished without visible damage.
SpaceX notes that, "These test flights of Starship are all about improving our understanding and development of a fully reusable transportation system designed to carry both crew and cargo on long-duration interplanetary flights, and help humanity return to the Moon, and travel to Mars and beyond."
SpaceX's Starlink megaconstellation is designed to provide global broadband coverage for high-speed internet access, particularly for people in rural and remote areas. Each of the flat-panel Starlink satellites weighs roughly a quarter-ton and are built in-house at a SpaceX facility in Redmond, Washington. (The company also manufactures its own own user terminals and ground stations.) While SpaceX expects its initial set of Starlink satellites to be 1,440 strong, the company has plans to launch thousands more. Company founder and CEO Elon Musk has said SpaceX needs between 500 and 800 satellites in orbit before service can begin to roll out. SpaceX is inching closer and closer to that goal, as it has delivered nearly 800 into orbit so far.
The Federal Communications Commission has granted SpaceX permission to launch as many as 12,000 of the flat-panel broadband satellites, but SpaceX may not stop there. The company has indicated it will see approval to launch as many as 30,000 of its internet-beaming satellites to beam down high-speed, low-latency Internet signals.